PBX, Voicemail, VPN
PBX: most PBX are no longer electro-mechanic machines, but rather computers with IP numbers, graphical interfaces, etc.
- Types: Octel, Williams, Meridian, ROLM, ATT -- all with specific ways to login (some very easy to hack, see book).
- Basic countermeasure: only turn modem on when maintenance is needed, turn off most of the time.
Voicemail: low impact, brute force attempts, but no logs (voice answers).
VPN: tunneling private data through the Internet with encryption, reducing WAN costs, and supporting modern electronic commerce.
- Tunneling involves encapsulation of a datagram within another, be it IP within IP (IPSec) or PPP within GRE (PPTP)
- IPSec (replaces PPTP) and Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol - L2TP (replaces L2F) are the most used VPN standards.