California Psychological Inventory (3rd ed.)
INDIVIDUAL SCALE DEFINITIONS

Excerpts from: Loring McAllister, Ph.D. (1996). CPI Interpretation, 3rd ed. Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.



Dominance (Do)
Factors of leadership ability, dominance, persistence, and social initiative.

Capacity for Status (Cs)
Personal qualities and attributes that underlie and lead to the attainment of status and symbols o success.

Sociability (Sy)
Characteristics relating to gregariousness, outgoing, sociable, participative temperament.

Social Presence (Sp)
Factors relating to  poise, spontaneity, and self-confidence in personal and social interaction.

Self-Acceptance (Sa)
factors such as sense of personal worth, self-acceptance, and capacity for independent thinking and action.

Independence (In)
To identify individuals who are independent, confident, and resourceful, but not necessarily affiliative.

Empathy (Em)
One's capacity to think intuitively about people and to understand their feelings and attitudes.

Responsibility (Re)
To identify one's level l of  conscientiousness,  responsibity, and dependability.

Socialization (So)
The degree of social maturity, integrity, and rectitude that the individual has attained.

Self-Control (Sc) This scale was developed to assess the degree and adequacy of self-regulation, self-control, and freedom from impulsivity and self-centeredness.

Good Impression (Gi)
Assesses one's ability to create a favorable impression and level of  concerned about how others react to them.
It is also used as a validity indicator.

Communality (Cm)
The degree to which an individual's reactions and responses correspond to the modal or common pattern established for the inventory.
It is also used as a validity indicator.

Sense of Well Being (Wb)
Identifies persons who minimize their worries and complaints and who are relatively free from self-doubt and disillusionment.
It is also used as a validity indicator.

Tolerance (To)
To identify persons with permissive, accepting, and nonjudgmental social beliefs and attitudes.

Achievement via Conformance (Ac)
To identify those factors of interest and motivation that facilitate achievement in any setting where conformance is a positive behavior.

Achievement via Independence (Al)
To identify those factors of interest and motivation that facilitate achievement in any setting where autonomy and independence are positive behaviors.

Intellectual Efficiency (le)
To identify the degree of personal and intellectual efficiency that the individual has attained.

Psychological - Mindedness (Py)
The degree to which the individual is interested in, and responsive to, the inner needs, motives, and experiences of others.

Flexibility (Fx)
The degree of flexibility and adaptability of a person's thinking and social behavior.

Femininity/Masculinity (F/M)
A person's interest in and capacity for patience and personal and interpersonal sensitivity.



SPECIAL PURPOSE SCALES (7) Several special purpose scales are scored and reported on the CPI profile.


Managerial Potential (Mp)

This scale was designed to identify those who have talent for supervisory and managerial roles and tend to seek out such positions. Included in the definition of a good manager are behavioral effectiveness, self-confidence, cognitive clarity, and goal orientation, but with no necessary implications
regarding exploitiveness.or self-centeredness.

A high score suggests individuals who create a good impression and are confident, fluent, socially effective, emotionally stable, mature, clear-thinking, realistic, optimistic, responsible, capable, well organized, and ambitious; who are goal oriented and value achievement; who show good initiative and foresight; who are effective leaders able to elicit cooperation from others, get things done, and offer advice; and who value intellectual and cognitive matters.

A low score suggests persons who lack confidence; who are socially maladroit and make mistakes in grammar or word usage; who are moody and worrisome; who tend to be dissatisfied, rebellious, defensive, immature, apathetic, irresponsible, distractible, and inconstant in the pursuit of long-range goals; who tend to be wedded to routine and are made anxious by change or uncertainty; and who may withdraw in the face of adversity.



Work Orientation (Wo)

This scale was designed to measure a sense of dedication to work, the strength of the work ethic, and the likelihood of performing well even in routine work or in subordinate positions.

A high score suggests persons who are reliable, reasonable, disciplined, dependable, and moderate.

A low score suggests persons who are restless, strong-willed, self-centered, and unreliable.



Creative Temperament (Ct)

This scale was created to identify creative potential in individuals. The scale items reflect such themes as poise and confidence, individualized and non-conventional personal values, a liking for the unpredictable and improbable, and progressive social attitudes."

A high score suggests individuals who are imaginative, individualistic, and unconventional. They have broad interests and are seen as curious; inquisitive, clever, and resourceful. They seek variety and change and may generate original and inventive ideas. Some may be adventurous.

A low score suggests persons who have narrow interests and a preference for routine and traditional approaches. They are typically conservative and conventional and may be rigid and inflexible at times. They may prefer the status quo over change.



Leadership Potential (Lp)

This scale was developed to identify individuals who would be described by others as having the skills and attributes associated with leadership.

A high score suggests people who are seen as effective leaders and able to elicit cooperation from others. They are typically alert, optimistic, poised, and confident, as well as forceful, assertive, and self-assured. They tend not to be troubled by pressure or criticism and are seen as resilient and resourceful. They are ambitious and energetic, and they evidence good initiative

A low score suggests persons who are awkward and ill at ease socially. They tend to be inhibited and may feel inferior or inadequate. They worry excessively and are obviously lacking in self-confidence. They are pessimistic, unambitious, and self-defeating, with a tendency to give up in the face of adversity.



Amicability (Ami)

This scale was designed to identify people who would be seen as amicable, cooperative, and friendly.

A high score suggests individuals who are dependable, responsible, and considerate in their dealings with others. They express warmth and compassion and have a capacity for establishing close relationships with others. Some may be seen as submissive They are patient, mild-mannered, and self-controlled, and attempt to fit in and cooperate with others. They are seen as optimistic and uncomplaining.

A low score indicates people who are pushy, headstrong, rebellious, and nonconforming. They tend to be self-indulgent and uncooperative, reacting with irritability when demands are placed on them. They exhibit a need for immediate gratification and are impatient with delay. They are easily upset. Some are seen as manipulative, opportunistic, and deceitful, as well as suspicious and distrusting toward others. They tend to be bitter, complaining, and argumentative.



Law Enforcement Orientation (Leo)

This scale was developed to identify individuals who are oriented toward law enforcement functions and who would be likely to demonstrate successful performance in the law enforcement field. The scale also identifies behaviors that would be associated with

success in the world of work, generally. Note that a Police and Public Safety Selection Report is now available through Consulting Psychologists Press based on CPI data, including, but going well beyond, the Leo scale.

A high score indicates an orientation toward law enforcement functions. In addition, such persons are seen as ambitious, well-organized, and conscientious. They are mature, confident, and realistic, and demonstrate leadership capability. They are honest, forthright, and direct in their behavior. They create a good impression and are interpersonally effective. They may be conservative in their values, and some may be moralistic. They tend to be energetic, industrious, and hardworking.

A low score indicates a low orientation toward law enforcement functions. In addition, such individuals are seen as worried, preoccupied, anxious, and easily upset. They lack confidence and are cynical and distrustful, as well as easily angered and irritated. They can be impulsive and unpredictable and may be self-defeating. Some may demonstrate artistic talent or an ability to think creatively, albeit unconventionally.



Tough-Mindedness (Tm)

This scale was designed to identify persons who would be described by others as independent-thinking and realistically tough-minded.

A high score indicates persons who are independent, self-reliant, and achievement oriented. They can mobilize their personal resources quickly and effectively, and they demonstrate solid leadership ability. Well organized and capable, they are hardworking and productive. They exhibit self-confidence and demonstrate effective interpersonal behavior. They pride themselves on being very objective and rational, as opposed to emotional, in decision making. They hold firmly to their opinions and beliefs. They show initiative and are resourceful.

A low score suggests individuals who lack self-confidence and are socially awkward and ill at ease. They feel inferior and are easily embarrassed. They may have low motivation and may be undependable and unproductive. They are anxious and worrisome and may be self-defeating. They tend to give up in the face of adversity.