Motivation, Satisfaction & Leadership

Final Exam Review

Chapter 6:  Cross Cultural Influences on Motivation & Leadership (p. 422)
(Julie Schniederman)
I. Culture

    A.  Definition-  The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the  members of one human group from another; (Hofstede, 1980, p. 25)                                                                                
   B. The word cross-cultural often implies cross-national where it is supposed to be representative of an entire country.  This is not always the case (i.e. Canada has 2 distinct cultures and Sweden, Norway and Denmark share one culture)

II.  Interest of research
   A. Can the information found with regards to motivation and leadership in the work place, be transferred/applied from one culture to another?
        1.    Research to date is vague
        2.    Lack of sound methodologies and conceptual foundations for interpretation of findings
        3.    Difficult to tell what causes the differences in leadership patterns- other variables involved (i.e. technology, industrialization, size of organization, laws governing the culture)

III. Importance of studying motivation and leadership cross-culturally
     A.  Buffers ethnocentrism
     B.  Easier to understand concepts by comparison
     C.  Workplace is becoming more culturally diverse

Hofstede: Cultural Constraints in Management Theories

(Mark Tregar)

I.  Management as the word is presently used is an American invention.  Entire concept of management in other parts of the world deviates considerably from what is normal and desirable in USA. US mgt has 3 idiosyncrasies to be discussed later: stress on market processes, stress on the individual, a focus on mangers rather than workers Culture free theories of management are impossible because theories have been developed in a particular cultural context.


Perspectives to be looked at today include Germany, Japan, France, Holland, Overseas Chinese, and poorer countries such in Africa and South east Asia, and finally China and Russia A trip around the world will demonstrate that mgt theorists of the US need to accept that some mgt. Theories may stop at national borders.


II. Germany

A.     Engineer is cultural hero rather than the manager

B.     This is in part because the heterogeneity of American culture never existed in Germany

C.     The guild system still exists in that 2/3 of workers in Germany were apprenticed and hold a special certificate that denominates skilled professionals

D.     The ‘manager’ in Germany is called meister and main job is to assign tasks and provide expert technical support

E.      These highly skilled workers have no need to American-style ‘motivate’ workers

F.      American consulting firm Booz, Allen, and  Hamilton in 1973 tried to consult and Germany but came away unsuccessful saying “ workers in Germany had no concept of mgt.


A.     No American style manager here either

B.     Core of enterprise in Japan is the permananent work group who for all practical purposes are tenured rather than managers in America

C.     All workers take part in group consultation sessions for tough decisions which extend decision making time but shorten implementation time

III France

A.     No US style manage

B.     System of mgt is characterized as old world style in that the entire society is stratified based on honor of class to which a person belong

C.     Cadres (superiors) vs. Non-cadres (lower

D.     One becomes a cadre by attending the proper schools and remains one forever—cadres have privileges of higher social class

E.      It is very rare for an NC to become a cadre


IV. Holland

A.     Main Mgt principle is a need for consensus of all parties—neither predetermined by a contractual arrangement (US) nor by class distinctions (France, Germany)—instead based on an open ended exchange of views and balancing of interests

V. Overseas Chinese: Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong

A.     Very successful economic development but very different from anywhere else in that the organizations are small and tend to favor networks based on personal relations

B.     Businesses are family owned and little separation between owners and mgt.

C.     Decision making is centralized to powerful family members

D.     May come for old school Chinese system with no formal laws only formal networks between powerful people

VI. Poorer Countries

A.     Mgt practices in these countries have contributed little or nothing to their development. i.e. they are still poor

 VII Russia and China:

            a. Free market capitalism is the supposed solve all to help all problems of disbanded Russian republics and can help china

VIII. Four dimensions on which cultures differ

A Power distance- degree of inequality felt and tolerated by pop of a country(low power distance= relatively equal)

B.Individualism vs Collectivism

C Masculine/Fem: degree to which a culture focuses on assertiveness, success and competition rather than personal relationships and solidarity

D Uncertainty Avoidance: degree to which structure is preferred over unstructured

        US has below avg power distance and uncertainty avoidance, highly individualistic, fairly masculine and short term oriented


VIII. Three American mgt theories idiosyncrasies

  1. stress on market processes—relations in human social life all based on transactions
  2. stress on individual—stress on interactions btw individuals not just one individual
  3. Stress on managers rather than workers


Lincoln, p. 440:  Employee Work Attitudes and Management Practice in the U.S. and

     Japan: Evidence from a Large Comparative Survey 

    (Andrea Amodeo)


I.          Purpose:  To examine a survey research investigation of U.S. & Japanese factories

and their employees in order to help understand the labor productivity advantage found in Japanese manufacturing.


II.         Are Work Attitudes Different in Japan and the U.S.?

A.        It was expected that Japanese employees would score higher in both job satisfaction and commitment to the company, due to their long hours, low absenteeism, low turnover, high productivity, etc.

B.         Commitment to the company found to be the same in the U.S. and Japan; Americans appeared to be more satisfied with their jobs than the Japanese.        

C.        Adjusting for the differences in job satisfaction, Japanese workers are indeed more committed to the company.


III.       Work Attitudes and Japanese-Style Organization

            A.        Workforce commitment can be increased through seniority systems

1.         The longer employees stay with company, the more the company’s values and goals are embraced as the employees’ own goals and values.

2.         The older Japanese in the workforce today have a different (probably more committed) mentality than their younger, more American-style generations.

B.         Japanese organizations are characterized by strong group cohesion both inside and outside of work, allowing the formation and strengthening of social bonds.


IV.       Authorities and Status Hierarchies

            A.        Japanese organizations

1.         Finely-graded hierarchies and narrow spans of control; more specialized in particular industries.

2.         Allows for steady progression up career paths (this is thought to help motivation).

B.         U.S. organizations –multidivisional structures; larger, more diversified firms.

C.        U.S. and Japan:  Less hierarchical levels in an organization (as in U.S. companies) shown to be associated with more committed and satisfied employees.

D.        Supervision

1.         Japan: supervisor functions as counselor and confidante, with a minimum amount of direct, authoritarian control.

            2.         Japan: employees prefer a personal supervisory style.

3.         U.S.: employees favor an arm’s length, strictly business, low-intensity relationship with supervisors.


V.        Decision-making Structures

A.        Japanese use a centralized, formal structure that is also participatory and consensus-seeking, as seen in “ringi” and quality circles—this shown to be associated with more committed and satisfied employees in both countries.

B.         Ringi and quality circles also shown to foster job satisfaction and commitment.


VI.       Company-sponsored Employee Services

A.        More prevalent in Japan, where companies sponsor and provide programs, activities, classes, ceremonies and recreation for employees.

B.         Both U.S. and Japan reacted to these services with increased job satisfaction and commitment.


VII.      Enterprise Unions

            A.        Japan: unions designed to provide support for and loyalty to the company.

B.         U.S.: union workers less satisfied, but less likely to quit, than nonunion workers.

C.        Unions in U.S. factories seemed to cause more negative employee work attitudes.


VIII.     Discussion

A.        Japanese employees’ combination of high commitment and low satisfaction is in line with hypotheses of a highly-motivated Japanese workforce.

B.         Japanese-style management practices and employment methods (such as cohesive work groups, quality circles, participatory decision-making, and company-sponsored services) used in either country seem to have positive effects on employee work attitudes.



Chapter 7 Reward Systems in Organizations p496-511

(Sam Buttigieg)


I.                    Types of Rewards

A.     Two types of reward

1.      Intrinsic/Extrinsic

2.      Systemwide/Individual

B.     Intrinsic Motivation

1.      Incorporated with cognitive evaluation theory

a.       Two processes that influence intrinsic motivation

1.      Locus of causality

2.      Changes of feelings in competence and self-determination

C.     Systematic vs. Individual Rewards

1.      System rewards provided to everyone in a broad category of employees.

2.      Individual rewards are provided to particular individuals not in a category


II.                 Functions of Reward Systems

A.     Participation

1.      Membership

a.       Joining

b.      Remaining

2.      Attendance (avoidance of absenteeism)

B.     Performance

1.      “Normal” role (job) performance

2.      “Extra-role behavior” (e.g., innovation, high commitment)

C.     Reward system motivates two broad categories of behavior: participation in the organization and performance in the organization.


III.               Implementation and Allocation Issues

A.     Concerns the evaluation or appraisal of performance

1.      Crucial to have effective means for assessing the quality and quantity or performance.

B.     How and whether rewards are in fact related to performance

1.      Many organizations believe they are relating rewards directly to performance, when, in fact, the relationship is not seen or believed by those receiving the reward

a.       reduces the motivational impact of the reward system

C.     How well the rewards systems in a particular organization related to the management style. Two categories

1.      Open/participative

2.      Traditional./authoritarian

D. Openness or Secrecy regarding various aspects of monetary compensation


Kerr:  On the Folly of Rewarding A, While Hoping for B (page 503).

(Rubina Pak)


I.   Numerous reward systems are fouled up in that the types of behavior rewarded are   those which the rewarder is trying to discourage, while the behavior desired is not being rewarded at all. 

II.   Fouled Up Systems

            A.  In Politics

1.  Official goals are purposely vague because they don’t offend anyone and are high in acceptance and low on quality.

2.  Operative goals are specific but are low in acceptance but high in quality.     

3.  Most Americans reward politicians for talking about official goals and punish politicians who talk about operative goals.

            B.  In War

1.  Primary goal for some is to win, but for others it is to bring individuals on the front line home alive. 

2.  This may not necessarily be a conflict in goals depending on how the reward system is set up.

            C.  In Medicine

                        1.  Two types of errors, Type I and Type II.

2.  Reward Type I errors because they generate more income, but punish Type II errors because they generate more malpractice suits.

3.  In an ideal world, physicians should not commit Type I and Type II errors.

            D.  In Universities

1.  Society hopes that professors don’t neglect their teaching responsibilities, but they are rewarded for research and publications.

2.  They are punished if they don’t have a research publication.

            E.  In Consulting

1.  Top management often entertain the idea of employee empowerment or TQM, but they don’t want a consultant to present a formal, revealing evaluation of the company.

2.  Instead, they reward ignorance in this area, while at the same time hoping for a systematic evaluation.

            F.  In Sports

1.  Most coaches reward individual effort, but they emphasize teamwork. 

2.  As a result, most players think of themselves first and the team second.

            G.  In Government

1.  The cost-plus contract or the allocation of next year’s budget is another fouled up reward system.

                        2.  Rewarding spending and not budgeting.

H.     In Business

1.  Rewarding for attendance, while hoping for performance.

2.  Hope for commitment to total quality, but reward shipping on schedule even with defects.    

III.  Causes

A.     Fascination with an “Objective” Criterion.

1.      Establishing standards that can be used to measure performance.

2.      Only good for highly predictable areas within an organization, but will cause goal displacement elsewhere.

B.     Overemphasis on Highly Visible Behaviors.

1.      Reward behaviors that are visible.

2.      Teambuilding and creativity are often neglected because they are not easily observable.

C.     Hypocrisy

1.      Rewarder may have been getting the desired behavior, notwithstanding claims that the behavior was not desired. 

2.      Example, judges’ campaigns are funded mostly by defense attorneys, but prosecutors are barred from making contributions.

3.      Gives the wrong impression of judges who are suppose to be “tough on crime.”

D.     Emphasis on Morality or Equity Rather than Efficiency.

1.      The 1994 Clinton health plan, The Americans with Disability Act are examples of systems that reward efficiency, presumably in support of some higher objective.

IV.  Altering the Reward System.

A.     Managers first need to evaluate their current reward system.

B.     They may find that they are rewarding the wrong behavior.



Why Merit Pay Doesn’t Work: Implications from Organizational Theory- (519)

(Jennifer Grzasko)


I.  Pay for performance programs have a lot of problems, and are no longer meeting the needs of organizations.   The authors address merit pay as based on individual performance, not on group or organizational performance.  These pay programs are based on the assumption that overall organizational performance is the combination of individual employees’ separate contributions.   The authors believe that individual performance-based pay can provide powerful disincentives for cooperation.  This type of program is known for failing due to poor implementation. 


1.  Organizational Theory and Merit Pay

a)      Pay programs are based on the development of “compensation contracts” in which pay is linked to the employee’s performance in an explicit agreement.


2.  Uncertainty in Organizations:

a)      Looks at the authority relationships that exist between supervisors and subordinates.  Suggests that the authority of supervisors is accepted by employees in exchange for wages.  Employees have open-ended employment contracts that allow organizations the flexibility to respond to future uncertainty.


3.  Interdependence in Organizations

     Thompson 1967-

a)      Individuals are most interdependent when they must work together, interacting during task performance, in order to complete their work

b)      Sequential Interdependence- dependent employees rely on others for either their inputs, for the disposal of their outputs, or for both.

c)      Pooled Interdependence- the collective dependence of employees on the continued success of the organization.

d)      Suggested that pay for individual performance, since it provides incentives that run counter to the pooled interdependence among organization members, can actually undermine the quality of employer-employee relationships. Also that this type of pay plan can damage organizational commitment, since they treat the employee as a labor contractor. 


II.  Conclusion:

1.      Individually contingent pay plans are based on a false assumption.

a.      Paying people on the basis of their recent measured individual performance does not build on the relative advantages of the organizational form.  Most kinds of organizations succeed because of cooperation among their members.


Lawler: The Design of Effective Reward Systems (p.527)

(Cristi Ford)


Rewards in organizations have six kinds of impact that can influence organizational effectiveness:

1.      Attraction and Retention of Employees

2.      Motivation of Performance

3.      Motivation of  Skill Development

4.      Cultural Effects

5.      Reinforcement of  Structure

6.      Cost


Attraction and Retention

            Overall organizations that give the highest reward tend to attract and retain the most people.  However, organizations may actually profit from losing poor performers.  If replacement costs are low, it will be more effective to accept high turnovers and keep wages low. *The objective should be to design a reward system that is very effective at retaining the most valuable employees.


Motivation of Performance

            Employees perceive that rewards are tied to effective performance.  An individual’s motivation to behave in a certain way is greatest when he or she believes that the behavior will lead to certain outcomes (performance-outcome expectancy), feels that these outcomes are attractive, and believes that performance at a desired level is possible (effort-performance expectancy).


Skill Development

            Pay systems that pay the holder of higher-level, more complex jobs also reward skill development when and if it leads to obtaining a higher-level job.  You are often paid for the more skill that you have.



            Reward systems can shape culture precisely because of their importance influence on motivation, satisfaction and membership.  Rewards systems reward behaviors that turn into dominating patterns of behavior in the organization.


Reinforcement of Structure


            Reward can reinforce and design the organization’s structure.  It can help define the status hierarchy as well as the decision structure used, and communication between different levels of authority can be persuaded.



            The cost variables should take into account how much an organization is able to pay employees since it represents over 50% of an organization’s operating costs.


There is no right reward system to implement.  It is al contingent upon the organization’s needs must it is important to take into account how the particular system will impact these 6 areas.  It will also be necessary to determine the relationship intrinsic and extrinsic rewards will play in the reward system.  An effective reward system should be designed to fit well with the other design features of the organization and the business strategy.  Decisions about the reward system should be made in an interactive fashion.  The ultimate goal is to produce a system with integrated human-resource management strategy that is consistent it how it encourages people to be have appropriately as well as attracting the kind of people that support the business strategy.


Chapter 8

(Priyanka Patel)

High Involvement Management

I.                    Job redesign as it affects motivation, performance and satisfaction

a.       Positive behavioral and attitudinal consequences of such job enrichment efforts

                                                               i.      Significantly reduced turnover and absenteeism

                                                             ii.      Improved job satisfaction

                                                            iii.      Improved quality of products

                                                           iv.      Some improvements in productivity and output rates

b.      Negative consequences of such programs

                                                               i.      Increased training time and expense

II.                 Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

a.       Motivation can be increased through basic changes in the nature of an employee’s job (this is, job enrichment).

b.      Jobs should be redesigned to allow for increased challenge and responsibility, opportunities for advancement and personal growth

III.               Requisite Task Attibutes – by Turner and Lawrence (1965)

a.       An enriched job (that is, characterized by variety, autonomy, responsibility, etc.)  would lead to increased attendance and job satisfaction

IV.              Sociotechnical Systems Model

a.       To understand job redesign, need to consider psychological requirements of tasks in order for them to be motivating.  Need for a job to be…

                                                               i.      Reasonably demanding

                                                             ii.      Opportunity to learn

                                                            iii.      Some degree of autonomy

                                                           iv.      Social support and recognition

                                                             v.      Feeling that the job leads to desirable outcomes

b.      As a consequence job enrichment efforts should lead to high job performance and low labor stoppages.

V.                 Activation Theory

a.       Focuses on physiological processes involved in job redesign. 

b.      Degree of excitation to brain has curvilinear relationship to performance

c.       Low levels of excitation associated to performance that suffers

d.      More enriched jobs ŕ State of activation ŕ increase performance

VI.              Achievement Motivation Theory (Murray 1938)

a.       Focuses on an employee personality, specifically, and employee’s need for achievement. 

b.      Employees with a high need for achievement will be more likely to respond favorably to enriched jobs than employees with low need for achievement. 

VII.            *Hackman and Oldman’s Job Characteristic Model

a.       Examines relationship between nature of the job and employee performance

b.      Five core job dimensions (skill, variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) affect three critical psychological states

c.       States: experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work, knowledge of actual results. 

d.      These states in turn affect personal and work-related outcomes including motivation and satisfaction

Lawler: (pg. 571)

The New Plant Approach: A Second Generation Approach

I.                    Lawler examines how new patterns of organization design can influence employee motivation and performance.

II.                 The New Plant Approach includes a flat organization design and extensive use of self-managed teams

III.               Stresses the use of teams at the production level, but it does not stress the use of teams in other areas of the plant

IV.              Extensive use of skill-based pay (only for those in self-managing teams) and commitment to job security

V.                 New technology allows for work team members to be involved in a wide range of decisions and get feedback in areas where it was not practical before.

VI.              Heavy commitment to selection and training (Human Resources Management)

a.       Includes Realistic Job Previews

b.      Team-based selection processes


Manz  Self-Managed Work Teams: Moving Beyond Self-Management Myths (p.581)

(Matthew Sigafoose)


I.                    Introduction – this literature suggests that employee self-management is often more of an illusion than a reality…  there are several limitations in the way these self-management teams are implemented. 

II.                 Self-Management and Self-Managing Teams:


A.     What is Employee Self Management? A set of strategies for managing one’s own behavior to reduce discrepancies from existing work standards.  These strategies address short-run strategies allow employees significant self-influence in how to complete a task to meet a standard yet do not address self-influence in terms of what should be done and why. 

B.     Self-Managing Work Team Theory-Sociotechnical Systems Theory addresses optimizing both the social and technical aspects of the work environment.  Done so with employee training and skill development. 

C.     Challenges to Self-Management Theory-Dunbar (1981) argued that people want to believe that they can exercise some self-influence when the physical environment does not actually allow any self-influence.  Creates an illusion of control.  Mills (1983) suggested that employees in self-managing situations are in reality subject to control and supervision.  Further challenges lay in comparisons with international perspectives. 

IV.              Beyond Self-Management: Toward Self-Leadership:

A.     Self-leadership is a broader view of self-influence including additional strategies for managing the motivational value of the task and the patterns in one’s thinking.  Involves behavior yet focuses on cognition.  Includes the reduction of discrepancies from existing standards as well as evaluating the appropriateness of the standards.  Addresses what should be done and why and how to do it. 

B.     Self-leadership is closer to self-influence than self-management.  Self-leading employees need to develop abilities for strategic thinking and analysis.  These employees help set standards as opposed to employees who experience high organizational constraints. 

C.     Lawler discusses three organizational involvement strategies from lowest to highest involvement.

                                                               i.      Parallel suggestion involvement-creates a separate parallel structure that provides employees with some increases in information, involvement, and rewards for possible suggestions.

                                                             ii.      Job involvement-tends to emphasize the enhancement of worker motivation through the enrichment of work.

                                                            iii.      High involvement-provides the most involvement and ability for self-influence.  Involves passing power, information, knowledge, and rewards to the lowest level.

V.                 Toward a Theory of Self-Leading Teams:

A.     Teams could consist of a low number of members (4-12) and members would possess a greater level of discretion in their work.  Would posses a greater level of influence regarding decisions on what, why, and how they do things. 

B.     Two criteria for moving from a self-managing team to a self-lead team.

                                                               i.      Determine whether the group will have a designated leader and who they will be

                                                             ii.      Determine the direct influence exerted on the decision of what the team’s purpose will be… Why and what the group will do…

C.     Specific organizational characteristics determine the ease of the transition.  Impacts the abilities of work team members to influence their own self-direction.  Figure 3 (p.591) discusses this transition.  Exs:  Meeting standards and goals to setting standards and goals….  Workers are members of empowered teams to workers are members of strategic decision-making bodies.

VI.              Some Contingency Factors from Transition to a Self-Lead Team:

A.     Nature of the workers involved-willingness to participate.

B.     Ability level of the workers involved

C.     Workers level of perceived self-efficacy

D.     Work context-nature of the task, technology employed, environment

Nature of the environment-stable or dynamic- dynamic env’s require increased self-regulation


Chapter 9 Leadership Challenges (p. 617)

(Corrine Munday)


The major issue- “What do we mean by effective leadership in organizations?”


Important consideration- whether there are basic principles of successful leadership that can be distilled out of the welter of conflicting claims and prescriptions advanced by both behavioral scientist and practitioners


Caveat Emptor- be skeptical of all of the data that is presented in this chapter


-         The act of leadership creates effects, one of the most consequential of which is the intensification or, conversely, the dampening, of motivational forces.

It goes on to describe the rest of the articles in the chapter


Kotter (p. 620):  What Leaders Really do

            (Leslie Murrell)

I.                    Leadership and management distinctive and complementary systems of action. Ach has its own function and characteristic activities.  Both are necessary for success in an increasingly complex and volatile business environment.

II.                 The real challenge is to combine strong leadership and strong leadership and strong management use each to balance the other.

III.               Recent literature suggests that people cannot manage and lead.  Once companies understand the fundamental difference between leadership and management, they can begin to groom their top people to provide both.


IV.              The Difference between management and leadership

i.         Management is about coping with complexity.

ii.       Leadership is about coping with change.

1.      3 different functions of management vs. leadership

1.      Management = planning & budgeting; leadership = setting a direction

2.      Management = organizing and staffing; leadership = aligning people

3.      Management = controlling and problem solving; leadership = motivating and inspiring

V.                 Creating a culture of leadership

a.       During their 20s and 30s, many leaders have opportunities to lead, take risk, and learn about triumphs and failures.

b.      Later in the leaders career, broadening takes place- they grow beyond the narrow base that characterizes most managerial careers.

c.       Corporations who want to develop leaders put an emphasis on creating challenging opportunities for young employees.

d.      Employees in the company are made visible to senior management.

e.       Once executives in the company know who the potential leaders are, they plan for their development.

f.        Well-led businesses tend to recognize those people who successfully develop leaders.

* The above strategies create a corporate culture where people value strong leadership and strive to create it.


Bass (p.628) From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: earning to Share the Vision

            (Leslie Murrell)

VI.              Leadership Today

a.       Two factors that characterize modern leadership

i.    One factor – transactional leadership

1.      This transaction or exchange- places emphasis on promising rewards for good performance or threat and discipline for poor performance.

ii.    Second factor – transformational leadership


VII.            Transformational Leadership

a.       This type of leadership occurs when leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group, and when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of the group.  Transformational leaders achieve these results in one or more ways:

i.    Charismatic to followers

ii.    Inspire followers

iii.    Met the emotional needs of followers

iv.    Intellectually stimulate follower

VIII.         The Big Payoff

a.       Managers who behave like transformational leaders are more likely to be seen by their colleagues and employees as satisfying and effective than are those who behave like transactional leaders, according their colleagues’, supervisors’, and employees’ response on the MLQ.


IX.              Extra Effort From Below

a.       Transformational leaders have better relationships with their supervisors and make more of a contribution to the organization than do those who are only transactional.


X.                 Transformational Leaders make the difference between success and failure

a.       Leadership makes its presence felt throughout the organization and its activities.  S found that employees do a better job when they believe their supervisors are transformational leaders, but they are also much more satisfied with the company’s performance appraisal system.

b.      Transformational leadership should be encouraged, because it makes a big difference in the firm’s performance at all levels.

c.       Much can be done to change leadership in organizations from transactional t transformational.

i.    Transformational leadership can be increased substantially by suitable organizational and human resources policies.

ii.    A new model of transformational leadership presents opportunities for enhancing a corporation’s image and for improving its success in recruitment, selection, and promotion.

iii.    This model also has implications for the organization’s training and development activities and for the design of its jobs and organizational structure.

XI.              Training Managers

a.       Supervisors can give managers a detailed description of his/her transformational or transactional leadership performance as rated by the managers’ employees (MLQ used for this purpose).

b.      Other approaches to training

i.    Several approached to teaching transformational leadership make use of specific data gathered in workshops

ii.    Implications for leadership education

1.      It is encouraged that transformational leadership be taught in organizations

iii.    Implications for job design and job assignment

Implications for organizational structure.


Howell, Bowen, and Dorfman: Substitutes for Leadeship: Effetcive Alternatives (p. 672)

                        (Corrine Munday)


-         Probably the most disappointing aspect of research on leader behavior is that no strong, consistent relationships between particular leader behaviors and organizational effectiveness have ever been found.


I.                    Situational Theories

a.       The key is the fit between a leader’s style and the situation the leader faces; thus the leader who is highly effective in one situation may be totally ineffective in another

b.      Effective leaders must correctly identify the behaviors each situation requires and then be flexible enough to exhibit these behaviors

c.       An alternative is to let the leader alone but change the situation so that the fit is improved

II.                 Substitutes for Leadership

a.       Closely knit teams of highly trained individuals

                                                               i.      The experience and continuous training of individuals, along with the close relationships among members of a work group, substitute for the manager’s directive leadership

                                                             ii.      When other sources are deficient, the hierarchical superior is in a position to play a dominant role; when strong incentives and guidance derive from other sources, the hierarchical superior has less opportunity but also less need, to exert his or her influence

b.      Intrinsic satisfaction

                                                               i.      The workers’ intrinsic satisfaction from producing a high-quality product alleviates the need for most supervisory leadership

c.       Computer technology

                                                               i.      When individual workers have access to operating data and to a network that allows them to ask employees at other locations to help solve problems, they become more independent of their managers and arrive at solutions among themselves

d.      Extensive professional education

                                                               i.      Professional education and socialization can sere as substitutes for formal education

III.               Using Leadership Substitutes to Solve Problems

-         The trick is to develop norms and structures that consistently produce feedback when feedback is needed

a.       High-ability independent workers

                                                               i.      Even when subordinates haven’t much formal education, ability combined with experience can serve as a substitute for hierarchical leadership

b.      In place of hierarchical feedback

                                                               i.      In the absence of feedback, ability to perform cannot be improved and motivation to perform cannot be sustained

                                                             ii.      Many organizations have come to realize that feedback from clients and peers, and feedback provided by the task itself, can serve as a powerful substitutes for hierarchical feedback

c.       Substitutes for procedure

                                                               i.      The detailed work rules, guidelines, policies, and procedures existing can serve as substitutes for hierarchical leadership by providing important non-leader sources of task guidance

IV.              Leadership Neutralizers

a.       Physical distances

b.      Reward systems

c.       Bypassing management structure

V.                 Leadership Enhancers

a.       Leader “enhancers” are attributes of employees, tasks, and organizations that amplify a leader’s impact on the employees

b.      The creation of leadership enhancers makes particular sense when a leader has both the skill to manage effectively and personal goals consonant with organizational objectives but is prevented by one or more neutralizers from being effective

VI.              Strategies for Improving Leadership Effectiveness

a.       Decide whether leader is to blame or if the particular situation is to blame

b.      Things to measure

                                                               i.      Consistency

                                                             ii.      Distinctiveness

                                                            iii.      Consensus

VII.            Evaluating the Alternative Solutions

a.       Two questions-

                                                               i.      Will the solution remedy the problem?

                                                             ii.      What will the cost be?

b.      Factors to consider

                                                               i.      Durability

                                                             ii.      Reversibility

                                                            iii.      Symptom specificity

                                                           iv.      Single-source dependency

                                                             v.      Time to implement a particular solution

                                                           vi.      Development of the leader

                                                          vii.      Affordability


Senge The Leader’s New Work: Building Learning Organizations (p. 724)

(Matthew Sigafoose)


I.                    Introduction – Human beings are designed for learning.  It is our society which destroys this innate desire by focusing on getting the right answer.  Managers are the same way…  Argues that superior performance requires superior learning. 

II.                 Adaptive Learning and Generative Learning:

A.     Increasing organizational adaptiveness is the first stage in moving toward a learning organization.

B.     The second step, generative learning, is about creating.  It requires new ways of viewing the world.  Adaptive learning is about coping. 

C.     Emphasis is on continued experimentation and feedback. 

III.               The Leader’s New Work – leaders focus more on subtle more important work.  Leaders are designers, teachers, and stewards. 

A.     Leaders in learning organizations are responsible for building organizations where people are continually expanding their capabilities to shape their future-leaders are responsible for learning.

IV.              Creative Tension: The Integrating Principle – comes from seeing where we want to be, our vision, and telling the truth about where we are, our current reality.  The gap between the two creates a natural tension/ 

A.     This tension can be resolved by 1) raising the current reality toward the vision or 2) lowering the vision toward the current reality. 

B.     Without vision there is no creative tension. 

V.                 New Roles:

A.     Leader as designer – designing the organization’s governing ideas of purpose, vision, and core values. 
B.     Leader as teacher – helping everyone in the organization, including oneself, to gain a better understanding of the current reality.  Not an authoritarian idea.
C.     Leader as steward – Most subtle role.  A matter of attitude critical to the learning organization.  Comes from the idea that a leader wishes to serve first. They then wish and aspire to lead.  
VI.         New Skills:
A.     Building a shared vision – skills involve:
i.                     Encouraging personal visions, communicating and asking for support
ii.                   Visioning as an ongoing process
iii.                  Building extrinsic and intrinsic visions
iv.                 Distinguishing positive from negative visions.
B.     Surfacing and Testing Mental Models – being able to see new ideas… skills involve:
i.                     Seeing leaps of abstraction – don’t be so quick to generalize… test ideas that are so “obvious” 
ii.                   Balancing inquiry and advocacy – explain reasoning for implementing new views and encourage others to test those views as well as provide other views
iii.                  Distinguishing espoused theory from theory in  use – compare actions with one’s own typical theories.  
iv.                 Recognize and diffuse defensive routines – diffuse techniques which hide real thinking 
C.     Systems Thinking – focus less on every day events and more on underlying trends and forces of change.  Skills involve:
i.                     Seeing interrelationships – look at things as being connected, not separate
ii.                   Moving beyond blame – systems thinking displays that you and your problem are part of a single system.
iii.                  Distinguish detail complexity from dynamic complexity – detail has many variables while dynamic has cause and effect that are distant over time.
iv.                 Focus on areas of high leverage – small, well-focused actions can produce significant, enduring results.
VII.      New Tools: enhance leader’s conceptual abilities and foster conceptual ability and collaborative inquiry. 
A.     Systems Archetypes – certain types of systems structures occur again and again and then disappear.  Some include:
i.                     Balancing process with delay – decision makers fail to appreciate the time delays as they move toward a goal.
ii.                   Limits to growth – can be due to resource constraints or external or internal responses to growth.
iii.                  Shifting the burden- short term solutions are constantly used to fixed long term problems. Not good…
iv.                 Eroding goals – when all else fails, lower your standards.
B.     Charting Strategic Dilemmas – How to confront them:
i.                     Elicit the dilemmas – identify the opposed values of the dilemma. 
ii.                   Mapping – map out the two opposing dilemmas
iii.                  Sequencing- break hold of static thinking (Low cost –vs- high quality for ex)  
iv.                 Synergizing – final step.  After both values have gotten worse for a time then improved, they will “work together”.
VIII.    The Left-Hand Column: shows how we leap from data to generalization without even testing validity of our results.  This is because of personal mental maps.  Exercise that brings assumptions to the surface which influence behavior.  
IX.         Learning Laboratories: Practice Fields for Management Teams: controlled real life setting in which management teams can learn to work together.  Practice makes perfect idea.  
X.           Developing Leaders and Learning Organizations – if learning organizations are to exist, they must first train leaders the capabilities needed to develop an organization’s learning culture.