Chapter 1  Motivation in Organizations (p. 1)
  • What are the relative strengths of content and process theories of motivation (i.e. what unique contributions do each make to understanding causes for organizational behavior?
  •  What are some dependent variables (observable) that best reflect motivation (an implicit assumption)?

  • Why have some theories, despite their lack of empirical support, continue to be widely accepted?

            Terrence R. Mitchell & Denise Daniels
                Observation and Commentary on Recent Research in Work Motivation (p. 26)

    Questions for class discussion:

    Chapter ONE
    Compare the implications for controlling OB depending upon whether instinct or drives/reinforcement theories are true.
    Discussion Questions for class:

    How do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation theories explain the relationship between motivation and performance?
    What role does job satisfaction play in intrinsic and extrinsic motivational theories?
    Why has reinforcement theory been so popular in industry but such a failure when applied incorrectly?
    Give two examples of organizational behaviors that are typically controlled by negative reinforcement?
    Critique this course on how well or how poorly it is designed to elicit the important ingredients of intrinsic motivation.

    Chapter 2  Conceptual Approaches to Motivation at Work

        Richard M. Ryan & Edward Deci
            Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being (p. 49)
        Richard Mowday & kenneth Colwell
            Employee Reactions to Unfair Outcomes in the Workplace: The Contributions of Adam's Equity Theory to Understanding Work
            Motivation (p. 65)
        Russell Cropanzano and Deborah Rupp
            An overview of Organizational Justice: Implications for Work Motivation (p. 82)
        Judith Komaki
            Reinforcement Theory at Work; Enhancing and Explaining what Employees Do (p. 95)
        Edwin A. Locke
            Motivation through Conscious Goal Setting (p. 113)
        Alexander Stajkovic & Fred Luthans
            Social Cognitive Theory and Self-efficacy: implications for Motivation , Theory and Practice (p. 126)

     Discussion Questions for Chapter 2:

    How do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation theories explain the relationship between motivation and performance?
    What role does job satisfaction play in intrinsic and extrinsic motivational theories?
    Why has reinforcement theory been so popular in industry but such a failure when applied incorrectly?
    Give two examples of organizational behaviors that are typically controlled by negative reinforcement?
    Critique this course on how well or how poorly it is designed to elicit the important ingredients of intrinsic motivation.

    Discussion Questons for Bass chapters 1-3


    1. Explain why you think the overpayment hypothesis in equity theory is often not supported by research.
    2. How does Ed Lawler show that expectancy theory predicts the findings on studies with piece-rate conditions as well as equity theory?
    3. List three potential dependent variables that could be used for Valences (Expectancy) and Outcomes (equity) that could be useful other than employee pay or other traditional compensation.
     Cropanzano and Folger:Procedural Justice and worker motivation p. 72

    1. Give an organizational example of procedural and distributive in-justice other than ones given in the article.
    2. Explain how Procedural Justice supplements equity theory and give an example.
    3. Which of the two types of justice are more important for a manager to be concerned about, and why?

    Wood and Bandura:  Social Cognitive Theory of Org Management(P84)

    1. Explain how do the three types of incentive motivators (p.85) can be incorporated into Porter/Lawler’s concept of Valence in expectancy theory.
    2. Explain, by providing a concrete example, how the three aspects of Guided Mastery Modeling can be used to ensure transfer of training for managers learning how to reinforce subordinates.
    3. What do YOU think is the most important thing a manager can do to ensure that a subordinate develop self-efficacy in a job competency?

    Locke & Latham: Goal Setting theory: An Introduction (p95)

    1. How does goal setting as proposed by Locke, go beyond the Thorndike’s ‘law of effect’ that provided the behavioristic explained for motivation (p97)?
    2. What are two of your values and what are some goals that correspond to each of them?
    3. How do goal-setting concepts relate to notions central MBO, Human Relations and VIE theory?
    4. Can any motivational theory (e.g. control theory) fail to recognize the assumption of either explicit or implicit goals?

    Klein, Howard: An integrated Control Theory Model of Work Motivation

    1. Principles of reinforcement (operant conditioning) are not explicit in the control theory model. At what stage(s) (1-12) is reinforcement implicitly considered and how does it affect motivation?
    2. How could you use the Control theory model in a practical application?

    Chapter 3 Models of Leadership p.166

    Barry Staw
            Organizational psychology and the Pursuit of the Happy/Productive Worker (p. 144)
        Denise Rousseau & Tijoriwala
            What's a Good Reason to Change? Motivated Reasoning and social Accounts in Promotion Organizational Change (p. 155)
        Fred Luthans
            Positive Organizational Behavior (POB): Implications for Leadership and HR Development and Motivation (p. 178)

    1. The emphasis on leadership theories has come full circle back to trait theory (i.e. charismatic) from its original focus on traits (Stogdill) through behaviors and contingency. Why?
    2. In what way does Vroom, Yetton and Jago’s model differ essentially from all the others?
    3. Kirkpatrick and Locke: Do Traits Matter? p. 186
    4. Of the six traits that Kirkpatrick and Locke believe to be important for leaders (except Other Traits), which do you believe are essential and which are not?
    1. How do the personalized and socialized power motives mentioned by the authors relate to concepts within Bass’ Transformational leadership theory?


    Chapter 4  The Role of Goals and Intentions in Motivation

            Howard Klein, Michael Wesson, John Hollenbeck, & Bradley Alge
                Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process: Conceptual Clarification and Empirical Synthesis (p. 200)
            Ann O'Leary-Kelly, Joseph Martocchio & Dwight Frink
                A review of the influence of Group Goals on Group performance (p. 217)
            Deborah Crown & Joseph Rosse
                Yours, Mine, and Ours: Facilitation Group Productivity Through the Integration of Individual and Group Goals (p. 230)

     1. Discuss briefly how types of  “power” (French & Raven) are related to principles of operant conditioning and charismatic leadership.
    1. Compare, in terms of power, the similarities and differences between an organization and a government.
    2. In today’s organization is too much power exercised by too many or two few?
    3. According to Pfeffer, what does it mean to manage with power?
    4. How do leadership styles in experimental settings differ from those in field settings?
    5. In what way does a female leadership style differ from that of a man
    6. Of the eight influence tactics, which finding was the most counterintuitive regarding the directional hypotheses? Explain why.
    7. How would you use these findings to help in designing an organizational communications training module?
    8. Through what mechanism(s) does culture control employee behavior?
    9. Why do you think a comprehensive reward system would induce more organizational commitment and more Org Citizenship Behaivor than a system designed to reward at the individual level?

    Chapter 5  The Role of Affect in Motivation

         Rajagopal Raghunathan & Michel Pham
            All Negative Moods Are not Equal; Motivational jinfluences of Anxiety and Sadness on Decision making (p. 252)
        Viswanath Venkatest & Cheri Speier
               Computer Technology Training in the Workplace: A longitudinal investigation of the Effect of Mood

    1.  Explain how beliefs, affect and behavior define an attitude.
    2. What are some of the conditions necessary in order for job attitudes to predict work related behavior?
    3. What is Organ’s explanation as to why satisfaction and performance are not typically found to be highly related?
    1. Explain what you think is the relationship between satisfaction and OCB.
    2. What dimensions of Transformational Leadership are most likely to induce OCB?
    Staw: Organizational Psychology and the Pursuit of the Happy/Productive worker (p.396)
    1. What did Ross and Staw’s conclude with regard to the relative contribution of dispositional and situation factors on job satisfaction?
    2. Compare the advantages and disadvantages individual, group, and organizationally-oriented performance systems.
    Rhodes, Steers: Major Causes of Absenteeism (p.408)
    1. What did Hackett and Guion (1985) conclude from the results of their meta-analysis of the pain-avoidance models?
    2. Which of the adjustment models (Gibson, Rosse & Miller, Chadwick-Jones) best explains the causes for absenteeism and why?
    3. Describe a work environment you are familiar with in terms of the three sets of interactive factors identified in Rhodes and Steers Diagnostic Model.

    Chapter 6 The Role of Social Influences in Motivation (p.295)

            Lyman Porter, Ed Lawler & Richard Hackman
               Ways Groups Influence Individual Work Effectiveness (p. 299)
            Yoav Vardi & Yoash Weiner
               Misbehavior in Organizations; A motivational Framework (p. 307)
            Glen Whyte
               Recasting Janis's Groupthink Model: The Key Role of Collective Efficiacy in Decision Fiascoes (p. 327)

    1. Why has it been so difficult to determine if motivation and leadership theory are universal?

    (Hofstede) Cultural Constraint in Management Theories (p. 425)

    1. What are the essential differences in management styles between Germany, Japan and France?
     2. Give an example of each of the three idiosyncrasies of American management theories.
    (Lincoln) Employee work Attitudes and Mgt Practice in the U.S. & Japan (p.440)

    1. What do you find surprising about the differences between work attitudes for Japanese and American workers?
    2. Do Japanese management styles work in the U.S.?

    Chapter 7  The Role of Cross-Cultural Influences in Work Motivation (p. 341)

          Geert Hofstede

               Cultural Constraints in Management Theories (p. 344)
          Carolos Sanchez-Rude  & Richard Steers
                Cultural Influences on Work motivation and performance (p. 357)
            Michael Frese, Wolfgang Kring, Andrea Soose & Jeannette Zempel
                Personal Initiative at Work: Differences between East and West Germany (p. 375)
          Christopher Meek
             GanBatte: Understanding the Japanese Employee (p. 398)
    (Lawler) the Design of Effective Reward Systems (p. 527)

    1. . According to Lawler, what are the most essential things to consider in designing an effective reward system?

    2. Explain how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation theories are employed in the assumptions of Kohn’s and Lawler’s view of compensation.
    Chapter 8 The Role of Individual Differences in Motivation  (p. 411)

            Charles O'Reilly III & Jennifer Chatman
               Working Smarter and Garder; A Longitudinal Study of Managerial Success (p. 413)
            Anthony Pilegee & Rolf Holtz
               The Effects of Social identity on the Self-Set Goals and Task Performance of High and Low self-esteem Individuals (p. 435)

    1. How has management’s view of the worker changed from Taylor’s perspective and what implications does this change in philosophy have for modern managers?

    2. Explain how certain components of the Job Characteristics Model relate to intrinsic motivation as an individual and/or situation variable.
    1. What are the essential differences between self-managed teams and those that are self-lead?
    2. What are the implications for organizational leaders who expect to move to self-lead teams?
    3.  Discuss what you think are the most critical issues that need to be addressed if the self-lead team approach is to succeed.


    Chapter 9   Rewards (p. 451)

             Edward Lawler III
               The Design of Effective Reward Systems (p. 457)
            Steven Kerr
               On the Folly of Rewarding A, While Hoping for B (p. 479)
            Jone Pearce
               Why Merit Pay Doesn't Work: Implications from Organizational Theory (p. 487)
            Jeffrey Pfeffer
               Six Dangerous Myths about Pay (p. 494)
            Jack Duncan
               Stock Ownership and Work Motivation (p. 506)

    How, according to Pearce, does the typical contingent reward system fail to build on the organizational form?

    Provide your own example of an instance in a work setting of the folly of rewarding A while hoping for B.
    Which one of the four causes plays the biggest role in causing the folly to occur?

    1. Does the transformational leader work better in the military or private industry? Why?

     1. Why does the paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? Do you agree?

    Howell, Bowen, Dorfman) Substitutes for Leadership: Effective Alternatives (p.672)

    1. Describe a work situation with weak or ineffective leadership that operated successfully using one or more of the remedies.

    2. Explain why you think organizations are becoming more or less reliant on leaders.

    (Senge) The Leader's New Work: Building Learning Organizations (p.724)

    1. Relate each of the New Roles that Senge talks about to the characteristics of transformational leaders

    1. Of the recently introduced theories, compare implicit leadership theory to the neo-charismatic and support your argument for which one has better construct standing.

    Chapter 10 Punishment (p. 519)
            Jennifer George
               Asymmetrical Effects of Rewards and Punishments; The Case of Social Loafing (p. 522)
          Kenneth D. Butterfield, Linda Trevino & Gail Ball
                Punishment from the Manager's Perspective: A Grounded investigation and inductive model (p. 533)

    Chapter 11 Motivating Creativity and Innovation (p. 559)
            Teresa Amabile
                Motivating Creativity in Organizatioins: On Doing What You Love and Loving What You Do (p. 561)
          Anne Cummings & Greg Oldham
                Enhancing Creativity: Managing Work Contexts for the High potential Employee (p. 577)