Lyman Porter, Gregory Bigley &Richard Steers  (2003)

Motivation and Leadership at Work, 7th edition

Instructions for Written responses to Discussion Questions


Chapter 1  Motivation in Organizations (p. 1)
Chapter 2   Conceptual Approaches to Motivation at Work (p. 46)
Chapter 3  The Role of Cognition, Beliefs, and Attitudes in Motivation (p. 141)


 Chapter 4   The Role of Goals and Intentions in Motivation (p. 197)
Chapter 5  The Role of Affect in Motivation (p. 249)
Chapter 6  The Role of Social Influences in Motivation (p. 295
Chapter 7  The Role of Cross-Cultural Influences in Work Motivation (p. 341)
Chapter 8  The Role of Individual Differences in Motivation (p. 411)


Chapter 9  Rewards (p. 451)
Chapter 10 Punishment (P. 519)
Chapter 11 Motivating Creativity and Innovation (P. 559)


Objectives:  to provide student with a(n):

1.  understanding of models of motivation and leadership
2   knowledge of how motivation and leadership are related
2.  Understanding of the theories and how they are related
3.  framework for analyzing the various theories
3.  Knowledge of  how motivation and leadership relate to other organizational  variables
4.  Abiltiy to apply some motivational techniques

Emphasis is on how cognitive and reinforcement theories explain the "person-environment" interaction to determine motivation.

Chapter 1  Motivation in Organizations (p. 1)

Questions for class discussion:

  1. What was the problem with hedonism theory in explaining motivation?
  2. What are the relative strengths of content and process theories of motivation (i.e. what unique contributions do each make to understanding causes for organizational behavior)?
  3.  What are some dependent variables (observable) that best reflect motivation (an implicit assumption)?
  4. Why have some theories, despite their lack of empirical support, continued to be widely accepted?
  5. Compare the implications for controlling OB depending upon whether instinct or drives/reinforcement theories are true.

  6.  What components of Porter-Lawler model were carried over from Vroom's initial model?

  7. What enhancements did Porter and Lawler make to Vroom's model? 

  8. Give an example of how Porter-Lawler's model could be used to explain your motivation to work in a job you have had. (be specific).

  9. How do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation theories explain the relationship between motivation and performance?
  10. Terrence R. Mitchell & Denise Daniels
                Observation and Commentary on Recent Research in Work Motivation (p. 26)

  11. Compare and contrast goal-setting and action /control theory showing how they both are "on-line" theories.
  12. Would management be more receptive to "internal" or "external" motivational theories. How would you sell them on both?
  13. How is the notion of "hot" and "cold" theories similar to the personality state and trait distinction?
  14. Are personality traits universal? Explain.
  15. What is the authors' chief complaint about research in motivational theory? How could this be remedied?

Chapter 2  Conceptual Approaches to Motivation at Work (p. 45)

    Richard M. Ryan & Edward Deci
        Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being (p. 49)
    Richard Mowday & kenneth Colwell
        Employee Reactions to Unfair Outcomes in the Workplace: The Contributions of Adam's Equity Theory to Understanding Work
        Motivation (p. 65)
    Russell Cropanzano and Deborah Rupp
        An overview of Organizational Justice: Implications for Work Motivation (p. 82)
      Edwin A. Locke
        Motivation through Conscious Goal Setting (p. 113)

Questions for class discussion   Chapter 2 (Porter et al.):
  1. Briefly describe the Deci and Ryan's SDT, CET, and OIT and how each is integral to intrinsic motivation theory.
  2. How does relatedness in SDT play a key role in determining the choice and direction for motivation?
  3. Critique this course on how well or how poorly it is designed to elicit the important ingredients of intrinsic motivation.
  4. Which of the four justice models studied by Sweeney and McFairlin (1993) was best supported and what was their conclusion?
  5. How do you explain Major and Deaux's (1982) findings on gender differences in response to inequitable treatment?
  6. Why do CEO compensation packages continue to rise and what can be done about it?
  7. How is social identity theory (Tyler & Lind, 1992) related to the notion of relatedness in intrinsic motivation?
  8. How does Locke explain why self-set goals do not undermine intrinsic motivation (autonomy)?
Chapter 3 The Role of Cognitions, Beliefs, and Attitudes in Motivation p141

    Barry Staw
        Organizational psychology and the Pursuit of the Happy/Productive Worker (p. 144)
    Fred Luthans
        Positive Organizational Behavior (POB): Implications for Leadership and HR Development and Motivation (p. 178)

Questions for class discussion Chapter 3 (Porter et al):

  1. What did Staw conclude with regard to the relative contribution of dispositional and situation factors on job satisfaction?
  2. Compare the advantages and disadvantages individual, group, and organizationally-oriented performance systems (Staw).
  3.  In your opinion, what are the three most important intervening variables that moderate or mediate the relationship between job attitudes and performance?
  4. What is Luthan's main objective in promoting the emergence and focus on POB?
  5. Relate two of the 6 CHOSE concepts to concepts in VIE or Intrinsic motivation.
  6. Do you believe that EI (EQ) is a distinct construct or just a reformulation of known personality traits? Provide evidence to support your belief.
  7. Using goal setting theory, how would you structure a job to maximize the likelihood that it will develop the employee's self-efficacy?
Questions for class discussion: See: Bass Chapters 1-3

Chapter 4  The Role of Goals and Intentions in Motivation (p. 147)
Questions for class discussion:

         Ann O'Leary-Kelly, Joseph Martocchio & Dwight Frink
            A review of the influence of Group Goals on Group performance (p. 217)
        Deborah Crown & Joseph Rosse
            Yours, Mine, and Ours: Facilitation Group Productivity Through the Integration of Individual and Group Goals (p. 230)

Questions for class discussion:

  1. Why has there been so much emphasis on groups in organizations over the past couple of decades?
  2. What are some of the more salient cognitive phenomena relating to understanding groups in organizations? Hint: taken from all articles.
  3. What are some of the major obstacles that impeded the effectiveness of implementing MBO?
  4. What was the principal finding from O'Leary-Kelly et al.?
  5. In their qualitative analysis of studies of moderator variables, what were there findings regarding goal specificity and task type?
  6. Does it matter if group goals are assigned or participatively set?
  7. Describe the performance orientation for teams (cases) for this class.
  8. What was Crown and Rosse's principal conclusion regarding group-centric individual and group goals with interdependent tasks?
Questions for class discussion: See: Bass Chapter 4

Chapter 5  The Role of Affect in Motivation (p. 249)
Questions for class discussion:

     Viswanath Venkatest & Cheri Speier            Computer Technology Training in the Workplace: A longitudinal investigation of the Effect of Mood Questions for class discussion:

  1.  How do Porter et al. distinguish between affect, moods and emotions?
  2. Give an example of how one of the four components of Emotional intelligence is important for those in leadership positions
  3.  Use an example to describe how computer training has or has not influenced your mood.
  4. Which has a more pervasive effect on long term attitudes toward using training, positive or negative mood?
  5. Describe the range of dependent variables used for the Venkatest and Speier experiments.
  6. Using concepts from intrinsic motivation theory, explain how you think a positive mood would increase intrinsic motivation.
  7. What would you recommend that management consider when they are planning to implement computer training?